Influence of drying method on the material properties of nanocellulose I: thermostability and crystallinity
Publication Name: Cellulose 20
Publication URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10570-013-0019-z
The effect of drying method on selected material properties of nanocellulose was investigated. Samples of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were each subjected to four separate drying methods: air-drying, freeze-drying, spray-drying, and supercritical-drying. The thermal stability and crystallinity of the dried nanocellulose were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction. Supercritical-drying produced NFCs with the least thermal stability and the lowest crystallinity index. Air-drying or spray-drying produced NFCs which were more thermally stable compared with freeze-dried NFCs. The CNCs dried by the three methods (air-drying, freeze-drying, and spray-drying) have similar onset temperature of thermal degradation. The different drying methods resulted in various char weight percentages at 600 °C for the dried NFCs or CNCs from TGA measurements. The dried NFCs are pure cellulose I while the dried CNCs consist of cellulose I and II. The calculated crystallinity indices differ with each drying method. The cellulose II content in CNCs changes as a function of drying method. For the application of nanocellulose in non polar thermoplastics, spray-dried products are recommended according to their higher thermal stability and higher crystallinity index.