Mechanical Resilience and Cementitious Processes in Imperial Roman Architectural Mortar
Landis, E. N.
Brune, P. F.
Wenk, H. R.
Monteiro, P. J. M.
Ingraffea, A. R.
Publication Name: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Publication URL: https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.1417456111
The pyroclastic aggregate concrete of TrajanÕs Markets (110 CE), now Museo Fori Imperiali in Rome, has absorbed energy from seismic ground shaking and long-term foundation settlement for nearly two millenia while remaining largely intact at the structural scale. The scientific basis of this exceptional service record is explored through computed tomography of fracture surfaces and synchroton X-ray microdiffraction analyses of a reproduction of the standardized hydrated limeÐvolcanic ash mortar that binds decimeter-sized tuff and brick aggregate in the conglomeratic concrete. The mortar reproduction gains fracture toughness over 180 d through progressive coalescence of calciumÐaluminum-silicateÐhydrate (C-A-S-H) cementing binder with Ca/(Si+Al) Å 0.8Ð0.9 and crystallization of strtlingite and siliceous hydrogarnet (katoite) at ³90 d, after pozzolanic consumption of hydrated lime was complete. Platey strtlingite crystals toughen interfacial zones along scoria perimeters and impede macroscale propagation of crack segments. In the 1,900-y-old mortar, C-A-S-H has low Ca/(Si+Al) Å 0.45Ð0.75. Dense clusters of 2- to 30-µm strtlingite plates further reinforce interfacial zones, the weakest link of modern cement-based concrete, and the cementitious matrix. These crystals formed during long-term autogeneous reaction of dissolved calcite from lime and the alkali-rich scoriae groundmass, clay mineral (halloysite), and zeolite (phillipsite and chabazite) surface textures from the Pozzolane Rosse pyroclastic flow, erupted from the nearby Alban Hills volcano. The clast-supported conglomeratic fabric of the concrete presents further resistance to fracture propagation at the structural scale.