Effects of Fiber Orientation on the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Fiber-Filled Polymer Systems in Large Format Polymer Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing
Publication Name: Materials (Basel)
Publication URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35454459/
Large format polymer extrusion-based additive manufacturing has been studied recently due to its capacity for high throughput, customizable bead size and geometry, and ability to manufacture large parts. Samples from three fiber-filled amorphous thermoplastic materials 3D printed using a Masterprint 3X machine from Ingersoll Machine Tools were studied, along with their neat counterparts. Characterization techniques included thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA). TGA results showed that the fillers decreased the degradation temperature for most of the materials investigated, with a 30 °C decrease for polycarbonate (PC) and a 12 °C decrease for polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG). For all the materials used, heat capacity increases with increasing temperature. Moreover, results show that a highly conductive filler increases the heat capacity. In contrast, a material with a lower conductivity decreases the heat capacity indicated in the 15.2% and 2.54% increase for acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and PC and a 27.68% decrease for PETG. The TMA data show that the printed bead exhibits directional properties consistent with an orthotropic material. Smaller strains and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) were measured along the bead direction and across the bead compared to the through bead thickness showing that fillers are predominantly oriented in the bead direction, which is consistent with the literature. CTE values through bead thickness and neat material are similar in magnitude, which corresponds to the CTE of the matrix material. The experimental results serve to characterize the effect of fiber filler on the part thermal strains in three principal directions and two-part locations during the extrusion and bead deposition of large-format polymer extrusion-based additive manufacturing technologies.