Additive Manufacturing of Wood-Based Materials for Composite Applications
Wood-based material components including sawdust, wood flour, lignin, and cellulose nanofibers are being explored as functional additives and reinforcements in thermoplastic and thermosetting matrices used in additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing. The 3D printing processes most typically reported using wood-based materials include the extrusion-based fused filament fabrication, fused deposition modeling, large scale pellet-fed system, granular material bonding (selective laser sintering), and liquid deposition modeling. The rationale for using wood- based components in 3D printing include enhancing the material properties of the resulting printed parts such as increased mechanical properties, reduced dimensional instability, i.e. part warpage, improved aesthetics, providing a green alternative to carbon or glass filled polymer matrices as well as reducing material costs. This paper will provide an overview of wood-based material applications in 3D printing for composites with a state of the art review of current research activities around the world.