In this study, soil–structure interaction in a buried arch bridge system is numerically investigated with two models. Model predictions of arch bending moments and ultimate capacities are compared with the load test performance results of two buried structures from a companion paper. A novel finite-element model was developed using an arch discretized with beam elements and soil discretized with spring elements initialized during progressive backfill simulation. Nonlinear soil-spring force is determined from vertical overburden pressure and earth pressure coefficient dependent on arch deflection. A nonlinear soil-continuum finite-element model was developed using software with Mohr-Coulomb soil plasticity. Experimental moments are compared with model results for backfilling, a series of service-level line loads, and ultimate capacity with an apex line load. The soil-spring model does reasonably well at predicting arch moments and ultimate capacity, and the incorporation of deflection-dependent earth pressure is important when predicting ultimate capacity. The soil-continuum model agrees well with the soil-spring model for service positive moments.